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Article by listed AttorneyNanika Prinsloo

In our article on a general discussion on Close Corporations we mentioned that the members of the Close Corporation are not liable for the debt of the Close Corporation unless the members have signed surety for the debt of the Close Corporation.

(Read more about Association Agreements of Close Corporations  and  general Insolvency Law)

However, there are times when the members can be held liable for the debt of the Close Corporation  in their personal capacity, even if they did not sign surety for the Close Corporation.  These “times” are determined by the Close Corporations Act 69 of 1984 and is discussed below.  Under these circumstances the fact that a Close Corporation was registered can be ignored as if it was not registered and the members be held personally liable as if the Close Corporation did not exist.  This is referred to as “lifting the corporate veil” and means that members who are “hiding” behind “veil” of the Close Corporation, will be taken out from their hiding place (the Close Corporation) and be held liable for the debts and liabilities of the Close Corporation.

The circumstances that members can be held liable in their personal capacity even if they did not sign surety, are the following sections of the Close Corporations Act (hereinafter referred to as “the Act”) : 


In terms of Section 22 of the Act the abbreviation “CC” – in capital letters –must appear behind the name of the Close Corporation in any sign on any of the premises of the Close Corporation.  It must also be clearly visible in any documentation that the Close Corporation uses or signs.

In terms of Section 23 of the Act the full name and registration number of the Close Corporation must be clearly visible at its place of business as well as on any documentation that the Close Corporation uses or signs.  This name and registration number must also be visible in at least one other official language

If the Close Corporation does not display its name as aforementioned, the Close Corporation and, any member who signs documentation without the information of the Close Corporation set out as such, will be guilty of an offence.  A member who signs or uses documentation and the details of the Close  Corporation is not as set out aforementioned, will be personally liable for any debt of the Close Corporation or damages caused by the Close Corporation in his/her personal capacity as well. 


Every member must make a contribution to the Close Corporation and such contribution, whether it is money or goods or property, must transfer such property or money to the Close Corporation within 90 days after the registration of the Close Corporation.  If a member fails to do so, that member shall be liable for every debt of the Close Corporation from the date of registration of the founding statment in which particulers of the contribution concerned are stated tot the date of the actual payment, delivery or transfer of such money or property.


If the members deregister the Close Corporation while there are outstanding debts in the Close Corporation, they can be held personally liable for the debts of the Close Corporation.

SECTION 42(3):

If a member obtains a gain that should have accrued to the Close Corporation, then the member can be forced to repay the benefit he/she so obtained.  All the members of the Close Corporation has a fiduciary duty towards the Close Corporation. This means that the the member must act in the financial interest of the Close Corporation at all times and not for his/her own gain or take profits that could/should have accrued to the Close Corporation. 


If a member acts negligently and causes damage to the Close Corporation, the member can be held liable by the Close Corporation for any damages that the Close Corporation has suffered because of such  negligence.  The member will act negligently if he/she does not act with the degree of care and skill that may be reasonably expected from a person with his/her knowledge and experience.


There are other circumstances under which members can be help personally liable in terms of Section 63, which will not be discussed here.  What can be said is that where it is found that a member hides behind the “veil” of the Close Corporation, this veil can be lifted if the member abuses the Close Corporation.  Abusing the Close Corporation can mean that the member is not truthful to third parties that he is a member of  a Close Corporation, causing damages to third parties. In such an instance the member can be held liable for the payment of such debt in his/her personal capacity.  


This article was written by Nanika Prinsloo of Prinsloo and Associates Attorneys and Conveyancers.

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